What is ISIS? Something which all candidates going for SSB must know
What is ISIS or(Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) ?
The group came into existence more than twenty years ago as a fantasy which grew in the head of a Jordanian man whose name was Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Who was once a small time street thug, when he came to Afghanistan as a one of the thousand mujahideen wannabe in 1989,which was too late to fight the Soviet Union. He decided to go back to his hometown in Jordan, and remained a small figure in the international violent “jihad” for much of the coming up decades. He then decided to return to Afghanistan and he then decided to set up a training base for the terrorists, and it is here that he had met Osama bin Laden in 1999, but decided against joining al-Qaeda.
The fall of the Taliban in the year 2001 forced Zarqawi to flee to Iraq. It was here that his presence went largely unnoticed till the the time the Bush administration used it as an evidence that al-Qaeda was in collaboration with then Saddam Hussein regime . In reality, though, Zarqawi was a just a free agent, looking to make his own terror organization. Shortly thereafter the U.S.-led forces invaded Iraq in the year 2003, where he set up the foundation to the today’s known Islamic State: Jama’at al-Tawhid w’al-Jihad (which vividly means the Party of Monotheist and Jihad), which was comprised of up mostly of non-Iraqis.
Although Zarqawi’s outburst was similar to that of bin Laden’s, his targets though were much different. From the start, Zarqawi directed his rancour on his fellow Muslims, especially Iraq’s majority Shiite population. Bin Laden and al-Qaeda were the ones who regarded the Shiites as heretics, but they would rarely target the above said population as in with regard to slaughtering.
The Rise Of ISIS
After the death of Osama Bin Laden , Al Qaeda was in total disarray. Also there has been internal war which going on in Syria in 2011 and there was an unstable government at the hem in Iraq together it provided for a perfect rise for the AQI. Syria being in complete chaos, and this led to the Iraqi jihadists establishing a secure base of operations in Syria, hence raising money and winning new comrades to their agenda. Their ambitions started to grow along with their structural base, expanding on the lines so as to include Syria as well as Iraq into their fold. Iraqi jihadists, started in the year 2013 calling themselves the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS or ISIL) to reflect their new, broader orientation, also faced less pressure in Iraq with the departure of U.S. forces at the end of the year 2011. In Syria, the group took over large amount of territory, benefiting as the Syrian regime started focussing on more moderate groups whereas the Syrian opposition as a whole remained broken on various factors. At the same time, Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki started a series of disastrous policies so as to bolster the support among his Shi’a base, anfd systematically exclusion of Iraqi Sunnis from the power. Thus Baghdadi’s organization steadily built up a large amount of popular support, and regained its legitimacy in Iraq, and built a base in Syria, to replenish its ranks.
In June 2014, Baghdadi’s forces shocked all the people when they completely swept across Iraq, took over large territories of Iraq’s remote areas but also major cities such as Mosul and Tikrit, and very important resources such as hydroelectric dams and oil refineries, and several strategic border crossings which were aligned with Syria. Within a month, the group started calling itself the Islamic State—would officially declare the establishment of a caliphate in the territory which was under its control, and named it as Baghdadi the caliph and “leader for Muslims everywhere.