For All Defence Aspirants Wetland Ecosystem

For All Defence Aspirants Wetland Ecosystem


Wetland Ecosystem

Wetlands Are Areas Of Marsh Or Peatland With Water That Us Static Or Flowing, Fresh, Brackish Or Saline, Including Areas Of Marine Water The Depth Of Which At Low Tide Does Not Exceed 6 M.

Wetlands Are Transition Zones Between Terrestrial And Aquatic Ecosystems E.G. Mangroves

,Lake Littorals (Marginal Areas Between Highest And Lowest Water Level Of The Lakes), Floodplains (Areas Lying Adjacent To The River Channels Beyond The Natural Levees And Periodically Flooded During High Discharge In The River) And Other Marshy Or Swampy Areas.

These Habitats Experience Periodic Flooding From Adjacent Deep -Water Habitats And Therefore Supports Plants And Animals Specifically Adapted To Such Shallow Flooding Or Water Logging.

Waterlogged Soil, Adapted Plant Life (Hydrophytes)And Hydric Soils (Not Enough O2) Are The Chief Characteristics Of Wetlands.

Measures To Protect Wetlands

Ramsar Convention On Wetlands

Wetlands International

National Wetlands Conservation Programme (NWCP)

Ramsar Convention On Wetlands

Its An International Treaty For The Conservation And Sustainable Use Of Wetlands.

The Convention Was Signed On 2nd Feb ,1971.Number Of Parties To The Convention Is 168.

Need For Such Convention

Wetlands Are Indispensable For The Countless Benefits Or” Ecosystem Services “That They Provide Humanity ,Ranging From Freshwater Supply, Food And Building Materials ,And Biodiversity ,To Flood Control ,Groundwater Recharge, And Climate Change Mitigation.

64 % Of The World’s Wetlands Have Disappeared In The Last Century.


Conference Of The Parties (Cop) Is The Convention’s Governing Body Consisting Of All Governments That Have Ratified The Treaty.

Every Three Years, Representatives Of The Contracting Parties Meet As The Conference Of The Contracting Parties(Cop).

Cop Is The Policy Making Organ Of The Convention Which Adopts Decisions (Resolution And Recommendations) To Administer The Work Of The Convention.

The Cop 12 Was Held In Punta Del Este, Uruguay In 2015 .Cop13 Took Take Place In Dubai, United Arab Emirates, In October 2018.

Under The Convention The Contracting Parties Commit To

Work Towards The Wise Use Of All Their Wetlands;

Designate Suitable Wetlands For The List Of Wetlands Of International Importance (The Ramsar List) And Ensure Their Effective Management;

Cooperate Internationally On Trans Boundary Wetlands, Shared Wetland Systems And Shared Species.

Ramsar Site

At The Time Of Joining The Convention, Each Contracting Party Undertakes To Designate At Least One Wetland Site For Inclusion In The List Of Wetlands Of International Importance.

The Inclusion Of A Ramsar Site In The List Embodies The Government Commitment T O Take The Steps Necessary To Ensure That Its Ecological Character Is Maintained.

The List Of Wetlands Of International Importance Included 2,231 Ramsar Sites In March 2016.

The Country With The Highest Number Of Sites Is The United Kingdom With 170 Sites.

The Country With The Greatest Area Of Listed Wetlands Is Bolivia.

Montreux Record (Threatened List Of Ramsar Sites)

The Montreux Record Is A Register Of Wetland Sites On The List Of Wetlands Of International Importance  Where Changes In Ecological Character Have Occurred, Are Occurring, Or Are Likely To Occur As A Result Of Technological Developments, Pollution Or Other Human Interference. It Is Maintained As Part Of The Ramsar List.

International Organization Partners

The Ramsar Convention Works Closely With Six Other Organization Known As International Organization Partners(IOPS).These Are:

  1. Birdlife International
  2. International Union For Conservation Of Nature
  3. International Water Management Institute.
  4. Wetlands International
  5. World Wildlife Fund

6.International Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

Ramsar Sites In India

At Present, There Are 26 Ramsar Sites In India.

Keoladeo National Park And Loktak Lake Are Also Included In Montreux Record.

Wetlands Of India

Ashtamudi Wetland (Kerala)

A Natural Backwater In Kollam District.

River Kallada And Pallichal Drains Into It.

It Forms An Estuary With Sea At Neendakara Which Is A Famous Fishing Harbour In Kerala.

National Waterway 3 Passes Through It.

Bhtarkanika Manrgroves (Orissa)

The Core Area Of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary Was Declared Bhitarkanika National Park.

Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary Includes Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary.

Bhitarkanika Mangroves, A Part Of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary Were Designated A Ramsar Wetland Of International Importance In 2002.

It Is Famous For Its Salt Water Crocodiles And Olive Ridley Sea Turtle.

Bhoj Wetland (Madhya Pradesh)

The Bhoj Wetland Consists Of Two Lakes Located In The City Of Bhopal.

The Two Lakes Are The Bhojtal And The Lower Lake.

It Is A Manmade Reservoir.

A Total Of More Than 20,000 Birds Are Observed Annually.

The Largest Bird Of India, The Sarus Crane (Grus Antigone ) Is Found Here.

Chandra Taal (Himachal Pradesh)

Situated In Spiti.

Gets Its Name From Crecent Shape.

Chilika Lake (Orissa)

It Is The Largest Coastal Lagoon In India And The Second Largest Lagoon In The World.

Birds From As Far As The Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal ,Aral Sea And Other Remote Parts Of Russia, Kirghiz Steppes Of Mongolia ,Central And Southeast Asia, Ladakh And Himalayas Come Here.

In 1981, Chilika Lake Was Designated The First Indian Wetland Of International Importance Under The Ramsar Convention.

Nalbana Island Is The Core Area Of The Ramsar Designated Wetlands Of Chilika Lake.

The Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella Brevirostris) Is The Flagship Species Of Chilika Lake.

Chilika Is Home To The Only Known Population Of Irrawaddy Dolphins In India.

It Is Classified As Critically Endangered, In Five Of The Six Other Places It Is Known To Live.

East Calcutta Wetlands (West Bengal)

The Wetland Forms An Urban Facility For Treating The City’s Waste Water

The Wetland Provides About 150 Tons Of Fresh Vegetables Daily, As Well As Some 10,500 Tons Of Table Fish Per Year.

Harike Wetland (Jammu And Kashmir)

An Important Site For Breeding Wintering And Staging Birds, Supporting Over 200,000 Anatidae (Ducks ,Geese, Swans Etc). During Migration.

Hokera Wetland (Jammu And Kashmir)

Hokera Wetland Is Only 10 Km Away From Srinagar.

68 Waterfowl Species Like Large Egret, Great Crested Grebe ,Little Cormorant ,Common Shelduck, ,Tufted Duck And Endangered White-Eyed Pochard, Coming From Siberia ,China, Central Asia, And Northern Europe.

Kanjli Wetland(Punjab)

Man Made Wetland; In Kapurthala District; Aquatic ,Mesophotic & Terrestrial Flora & Fauna Is Found.

Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan)

A Complex Of Ten Artificial Seasonal Lagoons, Varying In Size, Situated In A Densely Populated Region.

Placed On The Montreux Record In 1990 Due To Water Shortage And An Unbalanced Grazing Regime.

Additionally ,The Invasive Growth Of The Grass Papalism Distichum Has Changed The Ecological Character Of Large Areas Of The Site, Reducing Its Suitability For Certain Water bird Species, Notably The Siberian Crane.

Kolleru Lake (Andhra Pradesh)

Located On Krishna & Godavari Deltas.

Birds Like Siberian Crane ,Ibis & Painted Storks Migrate Here In Winters.

Loktak Lake (Manipur)

Loktak Lake Is The Largest Freshwater Lake In The North -Eastern Region.

Keibul Lamjao The Only Floating National Park In The World Floats Over It.

Point Calimere Wildlife And Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu)

One Of The Last Remnants Of Dry Evergreen Forests.

Habitat: Dry Evergreen Forests, Mangrove & Wetlands

Winter Migrants : Spoon Billed Sandpiper ,Greater Flamingos.

Pong Dam Lake (Himachal Pradesh)

A Water Storage Reservoir Created In 1975 On The Beas River In The Low Foothills Of The Himalaya On The Northern Edge Of The Indo-Gangetic Plain.



Er. HartaJ is one of the main Instructors and a part of the team At NCA. He himself has cleared the SSB process thrice, but as per his grandfather's Late Lt. Col H.S.Dhaliwal Wish he is continuing teaching and making officers. Been associated with New Careers Academy for the last 8 years, he also has been succefull in making Second and Third Generation Of officers. Once Taught by his Grandfather and Father Capt. Dhaliwal. He is know all across with students for the way he teaches and he is more of a role model for them .