For All Defence Aspirants Measurement Of Biodiversity-NCA ACADEMY

For All Defence Aspirants Measurement Of Biodiversity-NCA ACADEMY




Biodiversity Is The Variety Of Plant And Animal Life In The World Or In A Particular Habitat.

Measurement Of Biodiversity

Biodiversity Is Measured By Two Components Species Richness, And Species Evenness.

Endemism Is The Ecological State Of A Species Being Unique To A Defined Geographic Location, Such As An Island, Nation ,Country Or Other Defined Zone, Or Habitat Type; Organism That Are Indigenous To A Place Are Not Endemic To It If They Are Also Found Elsewhere.

A Particular Type Of Animal Or Plant May Be Endemic To A Zone, A State Or A Country.

The Extreme Opposite Of Endemism Is Cosmopolitan Distribution.

Measurement Of Biodiversity

Species Richness Is The Measure Of Number Of Species Found In A Community

Alpha Diversity- It Refers To The Diversity Within A Particular Area Or Ecosystem, And Is Usually Expressed By The Number Of Species(I.E.,. Species Richness) In That Ecosystem.

Beta Diversity- It Is A Comparison Of Diversity Between Ecosystems, Usually Measured As The Change In Amount Of Species Between The Ecosystems.

Gamma Diversity-It Is A Measure Of The Overall Diversity For The Different Ecosystems Within A Region.

Species Evenness Measure The Proportion Of Species At A Given Site, E.G. .Low Evenness Indicates That A Few Species Dominate The Site.

Genetic Diversity- It Is The Total Number Of Genetic Characteristics In The Genetic Makeup Of A Species.

A Single Species Might Show High Genetic Diversity(E.G. Man: Chinese,Indian American ,African Etc).

Genetic Diversity Allows Species To Adapt To Changing Environments. It Aims To Ensure That Some Species Survive Drastic Changes And Thus Carry On Desirable Genes.

Species Diversity- It Is A Measure Of Diversity Within An Ecological Community That Incorporates Both Species Richness And Evenness Of Species.

For E.G. Western Ghats Have A Greater Amphibian Species Diversity Than The Eastern Ghats.

Species Differ From One Another ,Markedly In Their Genetic Makeup And Do Not Inter-Breed In Nature. Closely -Related Species However Have In Common Much Of Their Hereditary Characteristics.

Species Types

It Is A Species Whose Addition To Or Loss From An Ecosystem Leads To Major Changes In Occurrence Of At Least One Other Species.

All Top Predators(Tiger ,Lion, Crocodile) Are Considered As Keystone Species Because They Regulate All Other Animal Population Indirectly. Hence Top Predators Are Given Much Consideration In Conservation.

If Keystone Species Is Lost, It Will Result In The Degradation Of Whole Ecosystem Certain Plant Species (Ebony Tree, Indian Laurel)Exclusively Depends Upon Bats For Its Pollination. If The Bat Population Is Reduced Then Regeneration Of Particular Plants Becomes More Difficult.

Reintroduction Of Wolves(Keystone) In Yellowstone Park, USA.

Foundation Species

It Is A Dominant Primary Producer In An Ecosystem Both In Terms Of Abundance And Influence. Example Kelp In Kelp Forests And Corals In Coral Reefs.


A Flagship Species Is A Species Chosen To Represent An Environmental Cause, Such As An Ecosystem In Need Of Conservation.

These Species Are Chosen For Their Vulnerability Attractiveness Or Distinctiveness In Order To Engender Support And Acknowledgement From The Public At Large.

E.G Indian Tiger ,African Elephant, Giant Panda Of China ,Mountain Gorilla Of Central Africa, Orangutan Of Southeast Asia And The Leatherback Sea Turtle.

Why Tropics Have Greater Biological Diversity?

Speciation Is Generally A Function Of Time, Unlike Temperate Regions Subjected To Frequent Glaciations In The Past, Tropical Latitudes Have Remained Relatively Undisturbed For Millions Of Years And Thus ,Had A Long Evolutionary Time For Species Diversification.

Tropical Environments ,Unlike Temperate Ones, Are Less Seasonal ,Relatively More Constant And Predictable. Such Constant Environments Promote Niche Specialization And Lead To A Greater Species Diversity.

There Is More Solar Energy Available In The Tropics, Which Contributes To Higher Productivity This Is Turn Might Contribute Indirectly To Greater Diversity.

In General Species Diversity Decrease As We Move Away From The Equator Towards The Poles. With Very Few Exceptions Tropics (Latitudinal Range Of 23.5 N To 23.5 S)Harbour More Species Than Temperate Or Polar Areas.

India, With Much Of Its Land Area In The Tropical Latitudes Has More Than 1,200 Species Of Birds.

Bioprospecting: Nations Endowed With Rich Biodiversity Explore Molecular, Genetic And Species Level Diversity To Derive Products Of Economic Importance.



Er. HartaJ is one of the main Instructors and a part of the team At NCA. He himself has cleared the SSB process thrice, but as per his grandfather's Late Lt. Col H.S.Dhaliwal Wish he is continuing teaching and making officers. Been associated with New Careers Academy for the last 8 years, he also has been succefull in making Second and Third Generation Of officers. Once Taught by his Grandfather and Father Capt. Dhaliwal. He is know all across with students for the way he teaches and he is more of a role model for them .