For All Defence Aspirants Local Self Government
Local self government
The system of urban government was constitutionalised through the 74th constitutional amendment act of 1992.
The urban local government originated and developed india during the period of British rule.
In 1987-88,the first municipal corporation in India was set up at madras.
Lord ripon’s resolution of 1882 has been hailed as the magna carta of local carta of local self government.
He is called as the father of local-self government in India.
74th amendment act,1992
Added a new part IX-A to the constitution entitled as the municipalities and consists of provisions from articles 243-p to 243-zg which gave constitutional status to the muni-cipalities.
Also added twelfth schedule to the constitution containing eighteen functional items of municipalities (article 243-w).
Three types of municipalities
Nagar panchayat for a transitional area i.e. an area transiting from rural to urban.
Municipal council for a smaller urban area.
Municipal corporation for a larger urban area.
Composition: all the members shall be elected directly by the people of the municipal area.
Each municipal area shall be divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards.
The state legislature may provide the manner of election of the chairperson of a municipality.
Consisting of one or more wards, within the territorial area of a municipality having population of three lakh or more will be constituted.
The act provides for the reservation of seats for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes in proportion of their population.
It provides for the reservation of not less than one- third of the total number of seats for women including the number of seats reserved for woman belonging to the SCs and the STs.
The act provides for a five years term of office for every municipality but it can be dissolved before the completion of its term.
The provisions of disqualification is similar to those enumerated for members in panchayati raj institutions. Similarly ,no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than 25 years age if he has attained the age of 21 years.
Powers and functions
The state legislature endows the municipality with the necessary powers and authority to enable them to function as institutions of self-government.
The state legislature may:
Authorise a municipality to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties ,tolls and fees.
Assign to a municipality taxes,duties,tolls and fees levied and collected by state government.
Provide for making grants in aid to the municipalities from the consolidated fund of the state: and
Provide for constitution of funds for crediting all moneys of the municipalities.
State finance commission shall also review the financial position of municipalities and make recommendation to the governor.
Types of urban government
Administration of big cities like delhi,Mumbai,Kolkata.
Has three authorities-the council the standing committees and the commissioner.
The council, the deliberative and legislative wing of the corporation is headed by a mayor assisted by a deputy mayor.
Municipalities are established for the administration of towns and smaller cities. Also have three authorities namely the council the standing committees and the chief executive officer.
Unlike the mayor of a municipal corporation, the chairman of municipality plays a significant role and is the pivot of the municipal administration.
Town area committee is set up for the administration of a small town.
A semi-municipal authority and is entrusted with a limited number of civic functions.
Created by a separate act of a state legislature.
May be wholly elected or wholly nominated by the state government or partly elected and party nominated.
Cantonment board is established for municipal administration for civilian population in the cantonment area.
Township is established by the large public enterprises to provide civic amenities to its staff and workers who live live in the housing colonies built near the plant.
The enterprise appoints a town administrator to look after the administration of the township.
Has no elected member.
Port trust are established in the port areas like Mumbai ,Kolkata Chennai and so on for managing and protecting the ports and providing amenities.
special purpose agency undertakes designated activities that belong to the domain of municipal corporations municipalities or other local urban governments.
Function based and not area -based
Example-water supply and sewerage boards, housing boards, pollution control boards, electricity supply boards city transport boards.
Exempted areas the act does not apply to scheduled areas and tribal areas in the states; & Darjeeling Gurkha hill council of the west Bengal.
District planning committee
To be constituted at the district level to consolidate the plans prepared by panchayats and municipalities in the district.
To prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole.