World trade organisation(WTO) came into existence on January 1,1995 replacing GATT (general agreement on tariffs and trade) ,which was in place since 1946 with the aim of promotion of the free trade.

India joined the GATT,the predecessor to the WTO in 1948.

India joined WTO as a founder member ,being a member of Uruguay round of GATT.

India has been a very active and hard negotiator, advocating the cause of developing and under developed nations.

Achievements of India at WTO

India has successfully represented the developing and least developed countries under G-77 and G-33 blocks to shape the agenda in their favor.

India was able to push the doha development agenda forward which focused more on development issues in favour of developing countries.

India successfully challenged the Singapore issues( which focused more on opening up of the market and less on the genuine developmental concerns of developing nations.

India was able to get the flexible patent laws in the trips trade related intellectual property rights under the provisions of special and differential treatment which allowed compulsory licensing used by India in NATCO case and prohibited evergreening of patented drugs by the MNCs.

India obtained the peace clause under agreement on agriculture (AoA)  to continue with its food stocking programme at administered prices.

India was able to block the trade facilitation agreement as a bargaining chip for the permanent solution to public stock holdings.

Ministerial conference the journey so far

The ministerial conference is the highest decision-making body of the world trade organization (WTO) providing political direction to the organizations.

Singapore ,1996

Established four permanent working groups on isses such as transparency in government procurement ,trade facilitation investment and competition.


Shortlisted possible components of a future work programme to be finalized by the WTO general council.


Ended without a declaration due to differences between developed and developing countries on issues such as agriculture and inclusion of labour standards.


developed countries succeeded in launching a new round of trade negotiations called doha development agenda.


Developed countries committed to the elimination of all form of agricultural export subsidies by 2013 and cotton export subsidies by 2006, both of which remained unfulfilled.

Geneva 2009,

This round served as a platform for ministers to review the functioning of WTO.


approved accession of Russia into WTO .the ministerial Concluded with a reference to growing protectionism.

BALI ,2013

WTO  members concluded negotiations on the landmark trade facilitation agreement (TFA) developing countries were promised a permanent solution to the food security clause by 2017.


Recognized the differences among the developed and developing countries on the way forward for doha round.



Er. HartaJ is one of the main Instructors and a part of the team At NCA. He himself has cleared the SSB process thrice, but as per his grandfather's Late Lt. Col H.S.Dhaliwal Wish he is continuing teaching and making officers. Been associated with New Careers Academy for the last 8 years, he also has been succefull in making Second and Third Generation Of officers. Once Taught by his Grandfather and Father Capt. Dhaliwal. He is know all across with students for the way he teaches and he is more of a role model for them .