For All Defence Aspirants Effects Of Water Pollution

For All Defence Aspirants Effects Of Water Pollution

Water Pollution

Water Pollution Is The Addition/Presence Of Undesirable Substances To/In Water Such As Organic Inorganic, Biological , Radiological, Heat ,Which Degrades The Quality Of Water So That It Becomes Unfit For Use.

Point And Non-Point Sources Of Pollution

When Pollutants Are Discharged From A Specific Location Such As As Drain Pipe Carrying Industrial Effluents Discharged Directly Into A Water Body It Represents Point Source Pollution.

In Contrast Non-Point Sources Include Discharge Of Pollutants From Diffused Sources Or Form A Larger Area Such As Run Off From Agricultural Fields, Grazing Lands, Construction Sites, Abandoned Mines And Pits ,Roads And Streets.

Causes Of Water Pollution

Increased Sediment From Soil Erosion Improper Waste Disposal And Littering

Leaching Of Soil Pollutants Into Water Supplies And

Organic Material Decay In Water Supplies.

Plastics Detergents, Oil And Gasoline– They Are A Waste From Industries ,Household And Farms. They Trigger Organic Pollution And Is Harmful To Health.

Inorganic Chemicals-Like Acids, Salts, Metals Are A Result Of Industrial Effluents ,Household Cleansers And Surface Run-Offs Are Injurious To Health.

Radioactive Materials.

Sediments- Sedimentation Of Soil, Site Due To Land Erosion And Deposition Causes Disruption In Ecosystem.

Plant Nutrients– Nutrients Like Nitrates, Phosphates And Ammonium Are Let Off From Agricultural And Urban Fertilizers, Sewage And Manure. Excess Of Nutrients Cause Eutrophication And Affect The Ecosystem.

Animal Manure And Plant Residues- Lead To Increased Algal Blooms And Microorganism Population. This Increases Oxygen Demand Of Water, Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems. This Is Introduced Into Water Due To Sewage, Agricultural Run-Off, Paper Mills ,Food Processing Etc.

Ground Water Pollution

In India At Many Places ,The Ground Water Is Threatened With Contamination Due To Seepage From Industrial And Municipal Wastes And Effluents ,Sewage Channels And Agricultural Runoff.

Pollutants Like Fluorides, Uranium, Heavy Metals And Nutrients Like Nitrates And Phosphates Are Common In Many Parts Of India.

Ground Water Contaminants And Their Effects

Nitrates -Excess Nitrate In Drinking Water Reacts Haemoglobin To Form Non-Functional Methaemoglobin, And Impairs Oxygen Transport. This Condition Is Called Methemoglobinemia Or Blue Baby Syndrome.

Methaemoglobin Cannot Bind Oxygen, Unlike Oxyhaemoglobin.

High Levels Of Nitrates May Form Carcinogens And Can Accelerate Eutrophication In Surface Waters.

Pathogens-Poor Hygiene Of Wells May Cause Pathogenic Contamination. Water Seepage From Solid Waste Dumps And Municipal Drains May Also Cause Pathogenic Contamination.

Trace Metals- Includes Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium And Nickel. These Metals Can Be Toxic And Carcinogenic.

Organic Compounds-Seepage Of Agricultural Runoff Loaded With Organic Compounds Like Pesticides May Cause Pesticide Pollution Of Ground Water.

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