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A process in which the communities of an ecosystem change over time.

for all defence aspirants ecological succession

 

A process in which the communities of an ecosystem change over time.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF ECOSYSTEM

Natural Ecosystem                                                                               Man Made Ecosystems                                                .                                                                            (Aquaria, Garden Dams & Cropland Of Maize, Wheat ,Rice

Terrestrial Ecosystems                                                                       Aquatic Ecosystems

1.Forest Ecosystems                                                                     1. Fresh Water Ecosystem

2.Grassland Ecosystem                                                                2. Marine Ecosystem

3.Desert Ecosystem                                                                      3. Running Water Ecosystem (Lotic)

  1. Standing Water Ecosystems (Lentic)

FUNCTIONS OF ECOSYSTEM

REGULATING FUNCTIONS

Maintenance Of Essential Ecological Processes And Life Support System E.G Climate Regulation-The Influence Of Land Cover And Biological Mediated Processes That Regulate Atmospheric Processes And Weather Patterns Which In Turn Create The Micro-Climate In Which Different Plants And Animals (Including Humans Live And Function).

SUPPORTING FUNCTIONS

Providing Habitat (Suitable Living Space) For Wild Plant And Animal Species At Local And Regional Scales. E.G The Preservation Of Natural And Semi Natural Ecosystem As Suitable Living Space For Wild Biotic Communities And Individual Species. This Function Also Includes The Provision Of Suitable Breeding .Reproduction, Nursery ,Refugia (Which Is Any Local Environment That Has Escaped Regional Ecological Change And Therefore Provides A Habitat For Endangered Species) And Corridors (Connectivity ) For Species.

PROVISIONING FUNCTIONS

Provision Of Natural Resources. E.G Food-The Biomass That Sustains Living Organism. Material That Can Be Converted To Provide Energy And Nutrition. Mostly Initially Derived From Photosynthesis.

CULTURAL FUNCTIONS

Providing Life Fulfilment Opportunities And Cognitive Development Through Exposure To Life Processes And Natural Systems. E.G Landscape Opportunity-The Extent And Variety Of Natural Features And Landscapes Like Mountains, Grass Lands And Beaches.

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

Biotic Communities Are Dynamic In Nature And Change Over A Period Of Time. The Process By Which Communities Of Plant And Animal Species In An Area Are Replaced Or Changed Into Another Over A Period Of Time Is Known As Ecological Succession.

Succession Occurs When A Series Of Communities Replace One Another Due To Large Scale Destruction (Natural Or Manmade). This Process Continues With One Community Replacing Another, Until A Stable, Mature Community Develops.

The First Plant To Colonize An Area Is Called The Pioneer Community. The Final Stage Of Succession Is Called The Climax Community. The Stages Leading To The Climax Community (Intermediate Stages) Are Called Successional Stages Or Seres. Each Transitional (Temporary )Community That Is Formed And Replaced During Succession Is Called A Stage In Succession Or A Seral Community.

Succession Is Characterized By The Following Increased Productivity The Shift Of Nutrients From The Reservoirs Increased Diversity Of Organism With Increased Niche Development And A Gradual Increase In The Complexity Of Food Webs.

Succession Would Occur Faster In Area Existing In The Middle Of The Large Continent. This Is Because ,Here Seeds Of Plants Belonging To The Different Seres Would Reach Much Faster ,Establish And Ultimately Result In Climax Community.

PRIMARY SUCCESSION

Primary Succession Takes Place Over A Bare Or Un Occupied Are A Such As Rocks Outcrop, Newly Formed Deltas And Sand Dunes, Emerging Volcano Islands And Lava Flows As Well As Glacial Moraines(Muddy Area Exposed By A Retreating Glacier)Where No Community Has Existed Previously.

In Primary Succession On A Terrestrial Site The New Site Is First Colonized By A Few Hardy Pioneer Species That Are Often Microbes .Lichens And Mosses. The Pioneers Over A Few Generations Alter The Habitat Conditions By Their Growth And Development.

SECONDARY SUCCESSION

Secondary Succession Occurs When Plants Recognize An Area In Which The Climax Community Has Been Disturbed.

Secondary Succession Is The Sequential Development Of Biotic Communities After The Complete Or Partial Destruction Of The Existing Community Due To Natural Events Such As Floods, Droughts ,Fires, Or Storms Or By Human Interventions Such As Deforestation ,Agriculture Overgrazing Etc.

AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC SUCCESSION

Succession In Which, Initially The Green Plants Are Much Greater In Quantity Is Known As Autotrophic Succession; And The Ones In Which The Heterotrophs Are Greater In Quantity Is Known As Heterotrophic Succession.

SUCCESSION IN PLANTS

Based On The Nature Of The Habitat-Whether It Is Water(Or Very Wet Areas) Or It Is On Very Dry Areas-Succession Of Plants Is Called Hydrach Or Xerarch ,Respectively.

Hydrach Succession Takes Place In Wetter Areas And The Successional Series Progress From Hydric To The Mesic (Intermediate ) Conditions.

As Against This, Xerarch Succession Takes Place In Dry Areas And The Series Progress From Xeric To Mesic Conditions.

Hence, Both Hydrach And Xerach Successions Lead To Medium Water Conditions  (Mesic)-Neither Too Dry (Xeric) Noe Too Wet (Hydric).With Time The Xerophytic Habitat Gets Converted Into A Mesophotic One.

SUCCESSION IN WATER

In Primary Succession In Water, The Pioneers Are The Small Phytoplankton’s Which Are Replaced With Time By Free Floating Angiosperms, Them By Rooted Hydrophytes Sedges, Grasses And Finally The Trees. The Climax Again Would Be A Forest. With Time The Water Body Is Converted Into Land.

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